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    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    1. Different 【hypotheses】 have been put forward to explain why UFOs exist.
    2. She is a lovely 【gracious】 woman
    3. She 【hugged】 me like an old friend and invited me to dinner the next day
    4. It was unfortunate that she had 【erased】 the message
    5. He never 【grumbled】 about working overtime
    6. To start with, we need to decide who will 【preside over】 the meeting
    7. I must apologize for my 【outrageous】 behavior.
    8. I think she made a 【blunder】 by announcing it ahead of time.
    9. He came back home, weary and 【fatigued】.
    10. I have to apologize for my 【abrupt】 departure yesterday.
    11. He 【was obsessed with】 American horror movies.
    12. You accusation is 【wholly】 without foundation.
    13. My room is really very 【cosy】.
    14. Some astronomers 【contend】 that the universe may be younger than previously believed.
    15. The woman living next door is extremely 【slender】.

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    16. One-Third of Parents Lack Facts about Child Development
    One-third of parents of babies have a surprisingly low knowledge of child development including basic concepts about what their children should know or how they should act, a new study finds.
    For instance, the study found that many parents don't know that 1-yoar-olds can’t tell the difference between right and wrong, and often don't cooperate or share when playing with other children.
    The results are surprising because the parents who took part in the survey had young children, said lead author Dr. Heather Paradis, a pediatric (儿科的) follow at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York. They were watching or had just watched their kids go through this development, and they were probably the most knowledgeable of anybody.”
    Paradis and her colleagues examined the results of a survey of parents — 98.6 percent of whom were mothers — of more than 10.000 9-month-old babies. As part of the survey, the parents were asked 11 questions designed to test their knowledge of a baby's development
    The researchers also examined what the parents said about their interactions with their children, and watched videotapes of how the parents taught new things to their kids. One-third of those surveyed incorrectly answered four or more of the questions. Even when the researchers adjusted the statistics to account for such factors as education levels and income, those parents were still less likely to enjoy "healthy interactions" with their children.
    A lack of proper understanding of a child's development can cause various problems, Paradis said. For example, she said, a mother might expect an 18-month-old child to sit still for a doctor's appointment, even though children that age are normally curious and like to wander around.
    "A mom could misinterpret a child's normal curiosity as intentionally being defiant (反抗的), and could respond with harsh discipline, withdrawal of affection and repetition of that pattern over time. "Paradis said. “That could hinder the child's potential for full growth and development."
    One solution, Paradis said, is for pediatricians to take a more active role in educating parents. "By improving knowledge of child development among all parents, not just those who are at highest risk, there's an opportunity to enhance parent-child interaction," she said. "It can ultimately lead to better parenting."
    1. A majority of parents of babies know little about child development.
    2. Babies of one year old have no sense of right or wrong.
    3. The parents surveyed were asked 11 questions on child development.
    4. Most American families are nuclear rather than extended ones.
    5. Most mothers with young children prefer to stay at home.
    6. Children of one and a half years old like to sit still.
    7. Parent-child interaction can in no way be improved.

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    17. Ebola Outbreak
    1 You are likely aware that several countries in West Africa are battling an Ebola outbreak. Ebola is a dangerous and often lethal viral infection. Scientists believe that humans contracted the virus by eating the meat of rare animals. It is now believed that bats are the primary carries of the virus.
    2 To date, there are only three major countries in West Africa experiencing a major outbreak: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. However, other countries such as Nigeria have reported confirmed cases of Ebola within their borders.
    3 Unless you recently visited one of the three affected West countries, your risk of contracting the virus is virtually zero. Unlike other recent airborne virus outbreaks like SARS, the Ebola virus can only be spread through direct contact with an infected person. Specifically, Ebola is spread through contact with body fluids. Though, the virus is transmittable, only an infected person exhibiting symptoms is communicable.
    4 The signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and patients typically exhibit them after a week of contracting the virus. Symptoms may appear as early as two days or as late as three weeks after initial infection. Symptoms include disgust, weakness and stomach pain. More uncommon symptoms include chest pain, bleeding and sore throat.
    5 Ebola is devastating because of its ability to attack and replicate in every organ of the body. This causes an overstimulation of the body’s inflammatory response, causing the flu-like symptoms. The virus also causes bleeding and impairs the body's normal clotting mechanism (凝血机制), making bleeding even more severe. Loss of blood volume and decreased organ perfusion (器官灌注) ultimately lead to organ failure and death.
    6 The current outbreak is the deadliest viral outbreak in over 35 years. While diseases such as the malaria (疟疾) are far more communicable, Ebola is one of the world’s most fatal viral infections. Ebola's fatality rate exceeds that of SARS.
    1. paragraph 2_______
    2. paragraph 3______
    3. paragraph 4______
    4. paragraph 5______
    5. The initial Ebola outbreak was found in _______.
    6. The difference between SARS and Ebola viruses lies in ______.
    7. The symptoms of the patients after being infected may first appear ______.
    8. The Ebola virus transmits by contact with ______.

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    18. 第一篇 Ear Breakthrough
    New research published in the journal Current Biology has added significantly to understanding of how the ear works, giving hope to millions of deaf and hard of hearing people.
    The latest research, conducted by Dr. Jörg T. Albert, a Deafness Research UK research fellow at the UCL Ear Institute, together with scientists at the University of Cologne, shows that fruit flies have ears which mechanically amplify sound signals in a remarkably similar way to the sensory (感觉的) cells found in the inner ear of vertebrates (脊椎动物) including humans. The finding means that the wealth of genetic techniques already available to study the fruit fly can now be used to target how the ear works
    Dr. Albert says. "The biophysical parallels between the ways both fruit flies and humans convert sound into nerve signals are truly amazing. We may be allowed to hope that these mechanistic (机械学的) similarities extend further down to the genes and molecules that bring about hearing. But even if it finally should turn out that hearing in fruit flies relies on different molecules than does hearing in humans, the little fruit fly can help us find answers to some key questions of hearing research and — what is sometimes even more important — will surely help us ask the right questions."
    The work is welcomed by Deafness Research UK, the country's only medical research charity for deaf people. Vivienne Michael, chief executive of Deafness Research UK, says, "This is an important advance that paves the way toward a clear understanding of the genetics of deafness. The charity will continue to support cutting-edge (尖端的) research through its Fellowship programme at the UCL Ear institute and at other top research centres in the UK to achieve our goal of securing audial improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of all forms of hearing impairment."
    There are nine million deaf and hard of hearing people in the UK and in most cases deafness results from loss of sensory cells in the inner ear known as "hair”, cells. The cells can be imaged and lost through ageing, noise, genetic defects and certain drugs and, because the cells don't regenerate, the result is progressive — and irreversible —hearing loss. Damage to these cells can also lead to tinnitus (耳鸣), which affects around five million people in the UK.
    1. A person who is hard of hearing is
    2. Quite a number of genetic techniques have been used
    3. Fruit files and humans share similarities in how they
    4. Vivienne Michael from Deafness Research UK highly appreciates
    5. Hearing loss caused by damage to the sensory cells
    19. 第二篇 Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ Scores
    Young adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university, reveals a major new study carried out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The study involved 1.2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and 1976. The research group analyzed the results of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.
    The study shows a clear link between good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for logical thinking and verbal comprehension. But it is only fitness that plays a role in the results for the IQ test, and not strength. “Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung capacity and that your brain gets plenty of oxygen,” says Michael Nilsson, professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular strength. We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.”
    By analyzing data for twins, the researchers have been able to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that explain the link between fitness and a higher IQ.
    “We have also shown that those youngsters who improve their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their cognitive performance,” says Maria Aberg, researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre. “This being the case, physical education is a subject that has an important place in schools, and is an absolute must if we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects.”
    The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service with the socio-economic status of the men later in life. Those who were fit at 18 were more likely to go into higher education, and many secured more qualified jobs.
    1. The researchers in this study come from
    2. Which of the following is an implication of physical fitness?
    3. By enhancing physical fitness, one could improves the following EXCEPT
    4. The study findings include the following EXCEPT that
    5. The word “secured” in the last paragraph is closest in meaning to
    20. 第三篇 15 Million Americans Suffer from Social Anxiety Disorder
    Social anxiety disorder prevents some 15 million Americans from leading normal social and romantic lives, a new survey finds.
    The disorder leaves many isolated, ashamed and often misdiagnosed. Thirty-six percent of those with social anxiety disorder have symptoms for 10 years or more before seeking help, the Anxiety Disorders Association of America reports.
    “Social anxiety disorder is when somebody has an intense, persistent and irrational fear of social or performance situations,” Jerilyn Ross, the association’s president and CEO, said during a teleconference Wednesday.
    “The condition causes people to avoid common, everyday situations and even other people for fear of being judged or criticized or humiliated or embarrassing themselves,” Ross said.
    Social anxiety disorder can interfere with daily routines and job performance, Ross noted. “It also makes it very difficult for people to develop friends and romantic partnerships,” she said.
    People with this disorder recognize their fear is excessive and irrational, Ross noted. “But they feel powerless to do anything about it,” she said.
    Social anxiety disorder can start in the early teens, Dr. Mark H. Pollack, director of the Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders and a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, said during the teleconference.
    “This is a disorder that starts affecting people early on1,” Pollack said. “The typical age of onset is early adolescence, age 12 or 13, and many individuals report a history of anxiety dating back to2 earlier childhood.”
    The disorder also has physical symptoms, including heart palpitations, feelings that their throat will close up3, sweating, blushing, faintness, trembling and stammering, Ross said.
    Among people with the disorder, 75 percent said the condition affected their ability to do normal activities. In addition, 69 percent said they didn’t want people to think they were crazy, and 58 percent said they were embarrassed by their condition, Ross said.
    However, when the condition is diagnosed and treated, many reported improvement in their lives. In fact, 59 percent who were receiving treatment said treatment had a positive effect on their ability to have a romantic relationship. In addition, 39 percent who had received treatment said knowing that treatment can be successful aided their decision to get help, Ross noted.
    1. Which of the following is NOT true of the people with social anxiety disorder?
    2. People with the disorder think that their fear is
    3. Usually the disorder starts to affect people when
    4. All the following are likely symptoms of the disorder EXCEPT
    5. The last paragraph indicates that treatment of the disorder

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    21. Hypertension Drugs Found to Cut Risk of Stroke
    Australian doctors declared Monday that a cocktail of simple antihypertensive drugs can lower the risk of patients suffering a repeat stroke by more than a third. This is the result of their research. ______(46)
    Strokes kill 5 million people a year, and more than 15 million suffer non-fatal strokes that often leave them with useless limbs, slurred speech and other serious disabilities. ______(47)
    An international six-year study of 6,100 patients directed from Sydney University found that by taking two blood pressure-lowering drugs, the risk of secondary strokes can be reduced by up to 40 per cent. Even taking one of the commonly available drugs can cut the risk by a third, the study said. ______(48) They even found that the risk of another stroke could be cut by three quarters among the one-in-ten patients who had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, the worst type of stroke, where there is direct bleeding into the brain.
    ______ (49) “If most of those patients were able to get access to this treatment, it would result in maybe the avoidance of half a million strokes a year,” the professor told Australia’s ABC Radio.
    ______(50) “What we have shown for the first time is that it does not really matter what your blood pressure is; if you have had a stroke, then lowering blood pressure will produce large benefits, to begin with—even for people whose blood pressure is average or below average,” he said.
    McMahon said the Milan gathering had heralded the research as a “major breakthrough in the care of patients with strokes — perhaps the biggest step forward that we have made in the last couple of decades”.
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    六、第6部分:完形填空

    22. Stage Fright
    Fall down as you come onstage. That’s an odd trick. Not recommended. But it ______ (51) the pianist Vladimir Feltsman when he was a teenager back in Moscow. The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre-performance panic, Mr. Feltsman said, “All my fright was gone. I already fell. What else could happen?”
    Today, music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that ______ (52) with performance techniques and career preparation. There are a variety of strategies that musicians can learn to ______ (53) stage fright and its symptoms: icy fingers, shaky limbs, racing heart, blank mind.
    Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice, from basics like learning pieces inside out, ______ (54) mental discipline, such as visualizing a performance and taking steps to relax. Don’t ______ (55) that you’re jittery, they urge; some excitement is natural, even necessary for dynamic playing. And play in public often, simply for the experience.
    Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests some ______ (56) for the moments before performance, “Take two deep abdominal breaths, open up your shoulders, then smile,’’ she says. “And not one of these ‘please don’t kill me’ smiles. Then ______ (57) three friendly faces in the audience, people you would communicate with and make music to, and make eye contact with them.” She doesn’t want performers to think of the audience ______ (58) a judge.
    Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the ______ (59) of stage fright, says Dorothy Delay, a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve.
    When Lynn Harrell was 20, he became the principal cellist of the Cleverland Orchestra, and he suffered extreme stage fright. “There were times when I got so ______ (60) I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic. I came to a ______ (61) where I thought, ‘If I have to go through this to play music, I think I’m going to look for another job.” Recovery, he said, involved developing humility-recognizing that ______ (62) his talent, he was fallible, and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.
    It is not only young artists who suffer, of course. The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz’s nerves were famous. The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example. “They had to push him on stage,” Soprano Renata Scotto recalled.
    ______ (63), success can make things worse. “In the beginning of your career, when you’re scared to death, nobody knows who you are, and they don’t have any ______ (64),” Soprano June Anderson said. “There’s ______ (65) to lose. Later on, when you’re known, people are coming to see you, and they have certain expectations. You have a lot to lose.”
    Anderson added, “I never stop being nervous until I’ve sung my last note.”
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