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    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    1. The weather last summer was 【awful】.
    2. The law carries a 【penalty】 of up to three years in prison.
    3. My piano playing has improved 【significantly】 since I had a new teacher.
    4. There is a need for 【radical】 changes in education.
    5. It 【frustrates】 me that I'm not able to put any of my ideas into practice.
    6. I realized to my 【horror】 that I had forgotten the present.
    7. He tried to 【assemble】 his thoughts.
    8. I am going as a 【favor】 to Ann because I have to.
    9. The doctors did not 【reveal】 the truth to him.
    10. Railways are the most important 【mode】 of transport for the economy.
    11. He said some 【harsh】 words about his brother.
    12. Under the 【terms】 of the contract, you must give 3 months’ notice before you leave.
    13. Don’t 【tempt】 thieves by leaving valuables clearly visible.
    14. When did you first 【encounter】 these difficulties?
    15. We need to identify the 【potential】 problems.

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    16. ADHD Linked to Air Pollutants
    Children have an increased risk of attention problems, seen as early as grade school, if their moms inhaled a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That’s the finding of a new study. Released when things don’t burned completely, this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. The biggest sources of these PAHs: the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.
    Frederica Perera works at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York City. She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children’s health. In a new study, she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe other sources of PAHs, ones that would have been hard for an individual to avoid.
    The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy. The reason: Any PAHs in a woman’s blood would also be available to the baby in her womb. Nine years later, the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children, now age 9. They asked each child’s mother a series of questions. These included whether her child had problems doing things that needed sustained mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The scientists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent, careless mistakes. All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. About one in 10 U.S. children has ADHD.
    Among the women studied, traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure, Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood. Others had high levels. Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9. The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE.
    1. Perera and her team chose nonsmoking pregnant women all over America.
    2. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHs played a role in harming the subjects physical health.
    3. Nonsmoking mothers were selected because the effect of smoking on PAHs was unclear.
    4. The blood of each woman was tested once a month during pregnancy.
    5. Kids with ADHD commonly fail in school.
    6. The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely to have kids with ADHD.
    7. Traffic and home heating were considered to be the biggest sources of PAHs for the subjects in the research.

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    17. New research lights the way to super-fast computers
    1 New research published today in the journal Nature Communications, has demonstrated how glass can be manipulated to create a material that will allow computers to transfer information using light. This development could significantly increase computer processing speeds and power in the future.
    2 The research by the University of Surrey, in collaboration with the University of Cambridge and the University of Southampton, has found it is possible to change the electronic properties of amorphous chalcogenides, a glass material integral to data technologies such as CDs and DVDs. By using a technique called ion doping, the team of researchers have discovered a material that could use light to bring together different computing functions into one component, leading to all-optical systems.
    3 Computers currently use electrons to transfer information and process applications. On the other hand, data sources such as the internet rely on optical systems; the transfer of information using light. Optical fibres are used to send information around the world at the speed of light, but these signals then have to be converted to electrical signals once they reach a computer, causing a significant slowdown in processing.
    4 "The challenge is to find a single material that can effectively use and control light to carry information around a computer. Much like how the web uses light to deliver information, we want to use light to both deliver and process computer data," said project leader, Dr Richard Curry of the University of Surrey.
    5 "This has eluded researchers for decades, but now we have now shown how a widely used glass can be manipulated to conduct negative electrons, as well as positive charges, creating what are known as 'pn-junction' devices. This should enable the material to act as a light source, a light guide and a light detector - something that can carry and interpret optical information. In doing so, this could transform the computers of tomorrow, allowing them to effectively process information at much faster speeds."
    6 The researchers expect that the results of this research will be integrated into computers within ten years. In the short term, the glass is already being developed and used in next-generation computer memory technology known as CRAM, which may ultimately be integrated with the advances reported.
    1. Paragraph 2 ________.
    2. Paragraph 3 ________.
    3. Paragraph 4 ________.
    4. Paragraph 5 ________.
    5. The results of the research can help computers to increase ________.
    6. Current computers transfer information using ________.
    7. The new glass material makes it possible to fulfill different computing function _______.
    8. Glass is used in the research to carry and process ________.

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    18. 第一篇 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?
    When people argue about whether coffee is good for health, they're usually thinking of health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help you concentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.
    Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted under the canopy (树冠) of taller indigenous (土生土长的) trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffee. At first, this increases production because more coffee bushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production come increased profits.
    Unfortunately, deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators (捕食者) in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.
    Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides kill insects that eat the coffee plants, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink
    Fortunately, farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as “shade grown” and “bird friendly.” Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. But we’re paying for the health of the birds the land, ourselves, and the planet I think it's worth it.
    1. What is the main idea of this passage?
    2. The function of the word “Traditionally” in Paragraph 2 is to show _______
    3. What does increased production of full- sun coffee bring about?
    4. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
    5. The full-sun method may affect this following EXCEPT _______
    19. 第二篇 Soot and Snow: A Hot Combination
    New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot alter the way sunlight reflects off snow. According to a computer simulation, black soot may be responsible for 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century.
    Soot in the higher latitudes of the Earth, where ice is more common, absorbs more of the sun’s energy and warmth than an icy, white background. Dark-colored black carbon, or soot, absorbs sunlight, while lighter colored ice reflects sunlight.
    Soot in areas with snow and ice may play an important role in climate change. Also, if snow and ice covered areas begin melting, the warming effect increases, as the soot becomes more concentrated on the snow surface. “This provides a positive feedback, as glaciers and ice sheets melt, they tend to get even dirtier,” said Dr. James Hansen, a researcher at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York.
    Hansen found soot’s effect on snow albedo (solar energy reflected back to space) , which may be contributing to trends toward early springs in the Northern Hemisphere, such as thinning Arctic sea ice, melting glaciers and permafrost. Soot also is believed to play a role in changes in the atmosphere above the oceans and land.
    “Black carbon reduces the amount of energy reflected by snow back into space, thus heating the snow surface more than if there were no black carbon,” Hansen said. Soot’s increased absorption of solar energy is especially effective in warming the world’s climate. “This forcing is unusually effective, causing twice as much global warming as a carbon-dioxide forcing of the same magnitude, Hansen noted.
    Hansen cautioned, although the role of soot in altering global climate is substantial, it does not alter the fact that greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the past century. Such gases are expected to be the largest climate forcing for the rest4 of this century.
    The researchers found that observed warming in the Northern Hemisphere was large in the winter and spring at middle and high latitudes. These observations were consistent with the researchers’ climate model simulations, which showed some of the largest warming effects occurred when there were heavy snow cover and sufficient sunlight.
    1. Which of the following statements of soot is NOT true?
    2. Which of the following areas shows a greater warming effect?
    3. “This forcing” in paragraph 5 refers to
    4. What’s the main cause of climate warming during the past century?
    5. The largest warming effects happened in the Northern Hemisphere with
    20. 第三篇 A Record-Breaking Rover
    NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity has boldly gone where no rover has gone before—at least in terms of distance. Since arriving on the Red Planet in 2004, Opportunity has traveled 25.01 miles, more than any other wheeled vehicle has on another world.
    “This is so remarkable considering Opportunity was intended to drive about 1 kilometer and was never designed for distance,” says John Callas, the Mars Exploration Rover Project Manager.
    He works at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “But what is really importantly is not how many miles the rover has racked up, but how much exploration and discovery we have accomplished over that distance.”
    The solar-powered Opportunity and its twin rover, Spirit, landed on Mars 10 years ago on a mission expected to last 3 months. The objective of the rovers was to help scientists learn more about the planet and to search for signs of life, such as the possible presence of water.
    Spirit stopped communicating with Earth in March 2010, a few months after it got stuck in a sand pit. But Opportunity has continued to collect and analyze Martian soil and rocks.
    During its mission, Opportunity has captured, and sent back to Earth, some 187,000 panoramic and microscopic images of Mars with its cameras. It has also provided scientists with data on the planet’s atmosphere, soil, rocks, and terrain.
    The rover doesn’t seem to be ready to stop just yet. If Opportunity can continue on, it will reach another major investigation site when its odometer hits 26.2 miles. Opportunity has been working on Mars since January 2004.
    Researchers believe that clay minerals exposed near Marathon Valley could hold clues to Mars’s ancient environment. Opportunity’s continuing travels will also help researchers as they plan for an eventual human mission to the Red Planet.
    1. Opportunity is a record breaking rover in the sense of
    2. What does John Callas say about Opportunity’s long distance travel?
    3. One of the objectives of sending Opportunity and Spirit is to
    4. Which of the following statements is true of Opportunity?
    5. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    21. Explore Jordan
    Wadi Rum is the name given to a valet cut into the sandstone and hard rock in northwest Jordan. ______(46) The name Rum most likely comes from an Aramaic word meaning “high” or “elevated”. The area around Wadi Rum is now also one of Jordan’s most important tourist destination, and attracts an increasing number of foreign tourists, particularly trekkers (越野者), but also for camel safaris (旅行) or simply day-trippers from Aqaba or Petra. In contrast, there are almost no local or Arab tourists, through nearby disi attracts young people from Amman at the weekends.
    Popular activities in the desert environmental includes camping under the stars, riding Arab horse, and rock-climbing amongst the massive rock formations. Jebal Rum (jebal means “mountain”) is 1574 meters above sea level. ______ (47)
    But Jordan is not simply a desert environment-it also contains the area which is the lowest point to the face of the Earth----the incredible Dead Sea, popular with tourists for swimming. ______ (48) Once the waters reach the Dead Sea they are landlocked and have nowhere to go, so they evaporate, leaving behind a dense, rich cocktail (混合的) of salts and minerals that supply industry, agriculture and medicine with some of its finest products. Once again, tourists benefit and can participate in water spa treatments and water therapies.
    The Dead Sea is located in the syro-African Rift, a 4000-mile fault line in the Earth’s crust. The lowest point of dry land on Earth is the shoreline of the Dead Sea at 1,300 feet below sea level. Because the lake is at the lowest point, this means that water does not drain from it. ______ (49) Figures for the Dead Sea’ s salinity (盐度) today range from 25% to 35%.
    But the greatest tourist attraction is the incredible city of Petra. ______ (50) It is a vast unique city, carved into the sheer rock face by the Nabataeans, an industrious Arab people who settled here more than 2,000 years ago, turning it into an important junction for the silk, spice and other trade routes that linked China India and southern Arabia with Egypt, Syria, Greece and Rome. Today, visitors can marvel at the architecture and explore life as it was thousands of years ago.
    1. 请选择合适的句子填入第46处
    2. 请选择合适的句子填入第47处
    3. 请选择合适的句子填入第48处
    4. 请选择合适的句子填入第49处
    5. 请选择合适的句子填入第50处

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    22. Rescue Platform
    In the aftermath (后果) of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, security experts are trying to develop new ways of rescuing people from burning skyscrapers. One ______ (51) is a platform capable of flying vertically and hovering in the air ______ (52) a helicopter. The platform would rise up and down alongside a skyscraper and pick up people ______ (53) in high stories.
    The idea for the vertical takeoff platform was hatched more than ten years ago by a Russian aerospace engineer, David Metreveli, who has since moved to Israel. Metreveli’s design, ______ (54) the Eagle, calls for two jet engines that ______ (55) four large horizontal propellers. The spinning of the propellers ______ (56) the necessary lift, or upward force, to raise the platform. The more ______ (57) is supplied to the propellers, the higher the platform ______ (58). Moving the platform sideways involves ______ (59) differing amounts of power to each propeller.
    Helicopters are now used in some ______ (60) to get people out of burning buildings. Escape baskets slung from them dangle beside the building for people to climb into. ______ (61), the baskets cannot reach every floor of a building ______ (62) the ropes from which they hang become unstable ______ (63) a certain length.
    So far, Metreveli has built a small-scale model of the Eagle to ______ (64) his idea. In the wake of September 11, he has been able to secure enough funding to start building a larger, 4-meter by 4-meter prototype, ______ (65) he calls the Eaglet.
    1. 请选择合适的单词填入51处
    2. 请选择合适的单词填入52处
    3. 请选择合适的单词填入53处
    4. 请选择合适的单词填入54处
    5. 请选择合适的单词填入55处
    6. 请选择合适的单词填入56处
    7. 请选择合适的单词填入57处
    8. 请选择合适的单词填入58处
    9. 请选择合适的单词填入59处
    10. 请选择合适的单词填入60处
    11. 请选择合适的单词填入61处
    12. 请选择合适的单词填入62处
    13. 请选择合适的单词填入63处
    14. 请选择合适的单词填入64处
    15. 请选择合适的单词填入65处

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