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    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    1. I will not 【tolerate】 that sort of behavior in my class.
    2. The law carries a 【penalty】 of up to three years in prison.
    3. These products are 【inferior to】 those we bought last year.
    4. The organization was 【bold】 enough to face the press.
    5. The political situation in the region has 【deteriorated】 rapidly.
    6. Most people find 【rejection】 hard to accept.
    7. They’re 【petitioning】 for better facilities for the disabled on public transport.
    8. He said some 【harsh】 words about his brother.
    9. I realized to my 【horror】 that I had forgotten the present.
    10. There was a 【simultaneous】 trial taking place in the next building.
    11. He tried to 【assemble】 his thoughts.
    12. The doctors did not 【reveal】 the truth to him.
    13. Prisoners were kept in the most 【appalling】 conditions.
    14. We were attracted by the 【lure】 of quick money.
    15. She’s extremely competent and 【industrious】.

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    16. ADHD Linked to Air PollutantsChildren have an increased risk of attention problems, seen as early as grade school, if their moms inhaled a certain type of air pollution when they were pregnant. That’s the finding of a new study. Released when things don’t burned completely, this pollution is known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs. The biggest sources of these PAHs: the burning of fossil fuels, wood and trash.
    Frederica Perera works at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York City. She researches how exposure to things in the environment affects children’s health. In a new study, she and her team studied the exposure to air pollution of 233 nonsmoking pregnant women in New York City. Because burning tobacco can spew PAHs into the air and lungs, Perera's team focused on nonsmokers. The researchers wanted to probe other sources of PAHs, ones that would have been hard for an individual to avoid.
    The team started by testing the blood of each woman during pregnancy. The reason: Any PAHs in a woman’s blood would also be available to the baby in her womb. Nine years later, the researchers investigated signs of attention problems in those children, now age 9. They asked each child’s mother a series of questions. These included whether her child had problems doing things that needed sustained mental effort, such as homework or games with friends. The scientists also asked if the kids had trouble following instructions or made frequent, careless mistakes. All of these can be symptoms of a disorder called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD. About one in 10 U.S. children has ADHD.
    Among the women studied, traffic and home heating were the primary sources of air pollution exposure, Perera and her team suspect. Some of these women had low levels of PAHs in their blood. Others had high levels. Those with high levels were five times as likely to have children who showed attention problems by age 9. The new findings were published November 5 in the journal PLOS ONE.
    1. Perera and her team chose nonsmoking pregnant women all over America.
    2. The main purpose of the research was to find out how exposure to PAHs played a role in harming the subjects physical health.
    3. Nonsmoking mothers were selected because the effect of smoking on PAHs was unclear.
    4. The blood of each woman was tested once a month during pregnancy.
    5. Kids with ADHD commonly fail in school.
    6. The women with high levels of PAHs in their blood were more likely to have kids with ADHD.
    7. Traffic and home heating were considered to be the biggest success of PAHs for the subjects in the research.

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    17. First Image-recognition Software
    1 Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have created an artificial intelligence software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internet with far greater accuracy than ever before.
    2 The new system, which was tested on photos and is now being applied to videos, shows for the first time that a machine learning algorithm (运算法则) for image recognition and retrieval is accurate and efficient enough to improve large-scale document searches online. The system uses pixel (像素) data in images and potentially video — rather than just text — to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with a search phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. The knowledge gleaned (收集) from those results can then be applied to other photos without tags or captions (图片说明), making for more accurate document search results.
    3 "Over the last 30 years," says Associate Professor Lorenzo Torresani, a co-author of the study, "the Web has evolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern, massive, fast-growing multimedia data set, where nearly every page includes multiple pictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist (主旨) of it by looking at the pictures in it. Yet, surprisingly, all existing popular search engines, such as Google or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in image pixels to improve document search."
    4 The researchers designed and tested a machine vision system — a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn without being explicitly programmed — that extracts semantic (语义的) information from the pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the description of the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval. The researchers tested their approach using more than 600 search queries (查询) on a database of 50 million Web pages. They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the best performance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic information extracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages. They found that this produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original search engine purely based on text.
    1. Paragraph 1 ________
    2. Paragraph 2 ________
    3. Paragraph 3 ________
    4. Paragraph 4 ________
    5. The new system does document retrieval by ________
    6. The new system is expected to improve precision in ________
    7. When performing document retrieval the existing search engines ignore ________
    8. The new system was found more effective in document search than the ________

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    18. 第一篇 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?
    When people argue about whether coffee is good for health, they're usually thinking of health of the coffee drinker. Is it good for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help you concentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.
    Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted under the canopy (树冠) of taller indigenous (土生土长的) trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffee. At first, this increases production because more coffee bushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production come increased profits.
    Unfortunately, deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators (捕食者) in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.
    Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides kill insects that eat the coffee plants, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink
    Fortunately, farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as “shade grown” and “bird friendly.” Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. But we’re paying for the health of the birds the land, ourselves, and the planet I think it's worth it.
    1. What is the main idea of this passage?
    2. The function of the word “Traditionally” in Paragraph 2 is to show _______
    3. What does increased production of full- sun coffee bring about?
    4. How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
    5. The full-sun method may affect this following EXCEPT _______
    19. 第二篇 More Rural Research Is Needed
    Agricultural research funding is vital if the world is to feed itself better than it does now. Dr. Tony Fischer, crop scientist, said demand was growing at 2.5% per year, but with modern technologies and the development of new ones, the world should be able to stay ahead.
    “The global decline in investment in international agricultural research must be reversed if significant progress is to be made towards reducing malnutrition and poverty,” he said.
    Research is needed to solve food production, land degradation and environmental problems. Secure local food supplies led to economic growth which, in turn, slowed population growth. Dr. Fischer painted a picture of the world’s ability to feed itself in the first 25 years, when the world’s population is expected to rise from 5.8 to 8 billion people. He said that things will probably hold or improve but there’ll still be a lot of hungry people. The biggest concentration of poor and hungry people would be in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia in 2020, similar to the current pattern. If there is any change, a slight improvement will be seen in southern Asia, but not in sub-Saharan Africa. The major improvement will be in East Asia, South America and South-East Asia.
    The developing world was investing about 0.5%, or $8 billion a year, of its agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) on5 research, and the developed world was spending 2.5% of its GDP. Dr. Fischer said more was needed from all countries.
    He said crop research could produce technologies that spread across many countries, such as wheat production research having spin-offs for Mexico, China or India.
    “Technologies still need to be refined for the local conditions but a lot of the strategic research can have global application, so that money can be used very efficiently,” Dr. Fischer said.
    Yields of rice, wheat and maize have grown impressively in the past 30 years, especially in developing countries. For example, maize production rose from 2-8 tones per hectare between 1950 and 1995. But technologies driving this growth, such as high-yield varieties, fertilizers, and irrigation, were becoming exhausted. “If you want to save the land for non-agricultural activities, for forests and wildlife, you’re going to have to increase yield,” Dr. Fischer said.
    1. What is the main idea mainly about?
    2. Which of the following statements is true about the world’s agricultural research finding?
    3. What is the picture of Asia’s food supplies in the first 25 years?
    4. What does Dr. Fischer say about technologies?
    5. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
    20. 第三篇 Dangers Await Babies with Altitude
    Women who live in the world’s highest communities tend to give birth to under-weight babies, a new study suggests. These babies may grow into adults with a high risk of heart disease and strokes.
    Research has hinted that newborns in mountain communities are lighter than average. But it wasn’t clear whether this is due to reduced oxygen levels at high altitude or because their mothers are under-nourished — many people who live at high altitudes are relatively poor compared with those living lower down.
    To find out more, Dino Giussani and his team at Cambridge University studied the records of 400 births in Bolivia during 1997 and 1998. The babies were bom in both rich and poor areas of two cities: La Paz and Santa Cruz. La Paz is the highest city in the world, at 3.65 kilometers above sea level, while Santa Cruz is much lower, at 0.44 kilometers.
    Sure enough, Giussani found that the average birthweight of babies in La Paz was significantly lower than in Santa Cruz. This was true in both high and low-income families. Even babies bom to poor families in Santa Cruz were heavier on average than babies born to wealthy families in lofty La Paz. “We were very surprised by this result,” says Giussani.
    The results suggest that babies born at high altitude are deprived of oxygen before birth. “This may trigger the release or suppression of hormones that regulate growth of the unborn child.” says Giussani.
    His team also found that high-altitude babies tended to have relatively larger heads compared with their bodies. This is probably because a fetus starved of oxygen will send oxygenated blood to the brain in preference to the rest of the body.
    Giussani wants to find out if such babies have a higher risk of disease in later life. People born in La Paz might be prone to heart trouble in adulthood, for example. Low birthweight is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. And newborns with a high ratio of head size to body weight are often predisposed to high blood pressure and strokes in later life.
    1. What does the new study discover?
    2. Giussani and his team are sure that
    3. It can be inferred from what Giussani say in Paragraph 4 that
    4. The results of the study indicate the reason for the birth of underweight babies is
    5. It can be learnt from the last paragraph that

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    21. Saving a City’s Public Art
    Avoiding traffic jams in Los Angeles may be impossible, but the city's colorful freeway murals (壁画) can brighten even the most miserable commute. Paintings that depict famous people and historic scenes cover office buildings and freeway walls across the city. With a collection of more than 2,000 murals, Los Angeles is the unofficial mural capital of the world.
    But the combination of graffiti, pollution and hot sun has left many L.A. murals in terrible condition. ______ (46) In. the past, experts say, little attention was given to caring for public art. Artists were even expected to maintain their own works, not an easy task with cars racing by along the freeway. ______ (47) The work started in 2003. So far, 16 walls have been selected, and more may be added later.
    Until about 1960, public murals in Los Angeles were rare. But in the 1960s and 1970s, young L. A. artists began to study early 20th-century Mexican mural painting. ______ (48)
    The most famous mural in the city is Judith Baca’s “The Great Wall,” a 13-foot-high (4-meter-high) painting that runs for half a mile (0.8 kilometer) in North Hollywood. ______ (49) It. took eight years to complete—400 underprivileged teenagers painted the designs—and is probably the longest mural in the world.
    One of the murals that will be restored now is Kent Twitchell’s "Seventh Street Altarpiece," which he painted for the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984. ______ (50) Twitchell said, "It was meant as a kind of gateway through which the traveler to L.A. must drive. The open hands represent peace."
    Artists often call murals the people’s art. Along a busy free way or hidden in a quiet neighborhood, murals can reach people who would never pay money to see fine art. in a museum. "Murals give a voice to the silent majority,” said one artist.
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    六、第6部分:完形填空

    22. I’ll Be Bach
    Composer David Cope is the inventor of a computer program that writes original works of classical music. It took Cope 30 years to develop the software. Now most people can’t ______ (51) the difference between music by the famous German composer J. S. Bach1 (1685-1750) and the Bach-like compositions from Cope’s computer.
    It all started in 1980 in the United States, when Cope was trying to write an opera. He was having ______ (52) thinking of new melodies, so he wrote a computer program to create the melodies. At first this music was not ______ (53) to listen to. What did Cope do? He began to rethink how human beings compose music. He realized that composers, brains ______ (54) like big databases. First, they take in all the music that they have ever heard. Then they take ______ (55) the music that they dislike. Finally, they make new music from what is ______ (56). According to Cope, only the great composers are able to create the database accurately, remember it, and form new musical patterns from it.
    Cope built a ______ (57) database of existing music. He began with hundreds of works by Bach. The software analyzed the data: it ______ (58) it down into smaller pieces and looked for patterns. It then combined the ______ (59) into new patterns. Before long, the program could compose short Bach-like works. They weren’t good, but it was a start.
    Cope knew he had more work to do-he had a whole opera to write. He continued to improve the software. Soon it could ______ (60) more complex music. He also added many other composers, including his own work, to the database.
    A few years later, Cope’s computer program, called “Emmy”, was ready to help him with his opera. The ______ (61) required a lot of collaboration between the composer and Emmy. Cope listened to the computer’s musical ideas and used the ______ (62) that he liked. With Emmy, the opera took only two weeks to finish. It was called Cradle Falling, and it was a great ______ (63)! Cope received some of the best reviews of his career, but no one knew exactly ______ (64) he had composed the work.
    Since that first opera, Emmy has written thousands of compositions. Cope still gives Emmy feedback on what he likes and doesn’t like of her music, ______ (65) she is doing most of the hard work of composing these days!
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