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    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    1. I will not 【tolerate】 that sort of behavior in my class.
    2. She showed a natural 【aptitude】 for the work.
    3. Most people find 【rejection】 hard to accept.
    4. The organization was 【bold】 enough to face the press.
    5. They were locked in 【mortal】 combat.
    6. We were attracted by the 【lure】 of quick money.
    7. The procedures were perceived as complex and less 【transparent】.
    8. The Stock Exchange is in 【turmoil】 following a huge wave of selling.
    9. He believes that Europe must change or it will 【perish】.
    10. There was a 【simultaneous】 trial taking place in the next building.
    11. They promote 【assimilation】 of ethnic groups into the main-stream culture.
    12. A salesman’s 【cardinal】 rule is to satisfy customers.
    13. I must 【compliment】 you on your handling of a very difficult situation
    14. We lived for years in a 【perpetual】 state of fear.
    15. The starving children were a 【pathetic】 sight.

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    16. Lack of Oxygen Delayed the Rise of Animals on Earth
    Scientists have long speculated as to why animal species didn’t flourish sooner, once sufficient oxygen covered the Earth’s surface. Animals began to prosper at the end of the Proterozoic period, about 800 million years ago — but what about the billion-year stretch before that, when most researchers think there also was plenty of oxygen?
    Well, it seems the air wasn’t so great then, after all.
    In a study published Oct. 31 in Science, Yale researcher Noah Planavsky and his colleagues found that oxygen levels during the “boring billion” period were only 0.1% of what they are today. In other words, Earth’s atmosphere couldn’t have supported a diversity of creatures, no matter what genetic advancements were poised to occur.
    “There is no question that genetic and ecological innovation must ultimately be behind the rise of animals, but it is equally unavoidable that animals need a certain level of oxygen,” said Planavsky, co-lead author of the research along with Christopher Reinhard of the Georgia Institute of Technology. “We’re providing the first evidence that oxygen levels were low enough during this period to potentially prevent the rise of animals.”
    The scientists found their evidence by analyzing chromium (Cr) isotopes in ancient sediments from China, Australia, Canada, and the United States. Chromium is found in the Earth’s continental crust, and chromium oxidation is directly linked to the presence of free oxygen in the atmosphere.
    Specifically, the team studied samples deposited in shallow, iron-rich ocean areas, near the shore. They compared their data with other samples taken from younger locales known to have higher levels of oxygen.
    Oxygen’s role in controlling the first appearance of animals has long vexed scientists. “We were missing the right approach until now,” Planavsky said. “Chromium gave us the proxy.” Previous estimates put the oxygen level at 40% of today’s conditions during pre-animal times, leaving open the possibility that oxygen was already plentiful enough to support animal life.
    In the new study, the researchers acknowledged that oxygen levels were “highly dynamic” in the early atmosphere, with the potential for occasional spikes. However, they said, “It seems clear that there is a first-order difference in the nature of Earth surface Cr cycling” before and after the rise of animals.
    “If we are right, our results will really change how people view the origins of animals and other complex life, and their relationships to the co-evolving environment,” said co-author Tim Lyons of the University of California-Riverside. “This could be a game changer.”
    “There’s a lot of interest right now in a broader discussion surrounding the role that environmental stability played in the evolution of complex life, and we think our results are a significant contribution to that,” Reinhard said.
    1. The study discovered the rise of animals occurred earlier than the Proterozoic period.
    2. Many researchers believe the oxygen level was high during pre-animal times.
    3. The team was funded by several research institutes.
    4. Genetic advancements triggered the rise of animals.
    5. The samples studied in the research were collected in ocean areas.
    6. The study revealed that chromium found in Earth’s continental crust remained stable before and after the rise of animals.
    7. Tim Lyons liked to play computer games in his spare time.

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    17. First Image-recognition Software
    1 Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have created an artificial intelligence software that uses photos to locate documents on the Internet with far greater accuracy than ever before.
    2 The new system, which was tested on photos and is now being applied to videos, shows for the first time that a machine learning algorithm (运算法则) for image recognition and retrieval is accurate and efficient enough to improve large-scale document searches online. The system uses pixel (像素) data in images and potentially video — rather than just text — to locate documents. It learns to recognize the pixels associated with a search phrase by studying the results from text-based image search engines. The knowledge gleaned (收集) from those results can then be applied to other photos without tags or captions (图片说明), making for more accurate document search results.
    3 "Over the last 30 years," says Associate Professor Lorenzo Torresani, a co-author of the study, "the Web has evolved from a small collection of mostly text documents to a modern, massive, fast-growing multimedia data set, where nearly every page includes multiple pictures or videos. When a person looks at a Web page, he immediately gets the gist (主旨) of it by looking at the pictures in it. Yet, surprisingly, all existing popular search engines, such as Google or Bing, strip away the information contained in the photos and use exclusively the text of Web pages to perform the document retrieval. Our study is the first to show that modern machine vision systems are accurate and efficient enough to make effective use of the information contained in image pixels to improve document search."
    4 The researchers designed and tested a machine vision system — a type of artificial intelligence that allows computers to learn without being explicitly programmed — that extracts semantic (语义的) information from the pixels of photos in Web pages. This information is used to enrich the description of the HTML page used by search engines for document retrieval. The researchers tested their approach using more than 600 search queries (查询) on a database of 50 million Web pages. They selected the text-retrieval search engine with the best performance and modified it to make use of the additional semantic information extracted by their method from the pictures of the Web pages. They found that this produced a 30 percent improvement in precision over the original search engine purely based on text.
    1.  Paragraph 1 ________
    2. Paragraph 2 ________
    3. Paragraph 3 ________
    4. Paragraph 4 ________
    5. The new system does document retrieval by ________
    6. The new system is expected to improve precision in ________
    7. When performing document retrieval the existing search engines ignore ________
    8. The new system was found more effective in document search than the ________

    四、第4部分:阅读理解

    18. 第一篇 Better Solar Energy Systems: More Heat, More Light
    Solar photovoltaic thermal energy systems, or PVTs, generate both heat and electricity, but until now they haven’t been very good at the heat-generating part compared to a stand-alone solar thermal collector. That’s because they operate at low temperatures to cool crystalline silicon solar cells, which lets the silicon generate more electricity but isn’t a very efficient way to gather heat.
    That’s a problem of economics. Good solar hot-water systems can harvest much more energy than a solar-electric system at a substantially lower cost. And it’s also a space problem: photovoltaic cells can take up all the space on the roof, leaving little room for thermal applications.
    In a pair of studies, Joshua Pearce, an associate professor of materials science and engineering, has devised a solution in the form of a better PVT made with a different kind of silicon. His research collaborators are Kunal Girotra from Thin Silicon in California and Michael Pathak and Stephen Harrison from Queen’s University, Canada.
    Most solar panels are made with crystalline silicon, but you can also make solar cells out of amorphous silicon, commonly known as thin-film silicon. They don’t create as much electricity, but they are lighter, flexible, and cheaper. And, because they require much less silicon, they have a greener footprint. Unfortunately, thin-film silicon solar cells are vulnerable to some bad-news physics in the form of the Staebler-Wronski effect.
    “That means that their efficiency drops when you expose them to light — pretty much the worst possible effect for a solar cell,” Pearce explains, which is one of the reasons thin-film solar panels make up only a small fraction of the market.
    However, Pearce and his team found a way to engineer around the Staebler-Wronski effect by incorporating thin-film silicon in a new type of PVT. You don’t have to cool down thin-film silicon to make it work. In fact, Pearce’s group discovered that by heating it to solar-thermal operating temperatures, near the boiling point of water, they could make thicker cells that largely overcame the Staebler-Wronski effect. When they applied the thin-film silicon directly to a solar thermal energy collector, they also found that by baking the cell once a day, they boosted the solar cell’s electrical efficiency by over 10 percent.
    1. PVTs are not efficient in
    2. One of the problems PVTs have is that
    3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an advantage of thin-film silicon solar cells?
    4. Thin-film solar panels do not sell well on market because
    5. Which of the following statements is true?
    19. 第二篇 Face Masks May Not Protect from Super-Flu
    IF a super-flu strikes, face masks may not protect you. Whether widespread use of masks will help, or harm, during the next worldwide flu outbreak is a question that researchers are studying furiously. No results have come from their mask research yet. However, the government says people should consider wearing them in certain situations anyway, just in case.
    But it’s a question the public keeps asking while the government are making preparations for the next flu pandemic. So the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) came up with preliminary guidelines. “We don’t want people wearing them everywhere,” said the CDC. “The overall recommendation really is to avoid exposure.”
    When that’s not possible, the guidelines say to consider wearing a simple surgical mask if you are in one of the three following situations. First, you’re healthy and can’t avoid going to a crowded place. Second t you’re sick and think you may have close contact with the healthy, such as a family member checking on you. Third, you live with someone who’s sick and thus might be in the early stages of infection, but still need to go out.
    Influenza pandemics can strike when the easy-to-mutate flu virus shifts to a strain that people never have experienced. Scientists cannot predict when the next pandemic will arrive, although concern is rising that the Asian bird flu might trigger one if it starts spreading easily from person to person.
    During the flu pandemic, you should protect yourself. Avoid crowds, and avoid close contact with the sick unless you must care for someone. Why aren’t masks added to this self-protection list? Because they can help trap virus-laden droplets flying through the air with a cough or sneeze. Simple surgical masks only filter the larger droplets. Besides, the CDC is afraid masks may create a false sense of security. Perhaps someone who should have stayed home would don an ill-fitting mask and hop on the subway instead.
    Nor does flu only spread through the air. Say someone covers a sneeze with his or her hand, then touches a doorknob or subway pole. If you touch that spot next and then put germy hands on your nose or mouth, you’ve been exposed. It’s harder to rub your nose while wearing a mask and so your face may get pretty sweaty under masks. You reach under to wipe that sweat, and may transfer germs caught on the outside of the mask straight to the nose. These are the problems face masks may create for their users.
    Whether people should or should not use face masks still remains a question. The general public has to wait patiently for the results of the mask research scientists are still doing.
    1. What is the passage mainly about?
    2. The CDC suggests that people
    3. The word "that" in Paragraph 3 refers to
    4. Which of the following statements is true?
    5. One of the concerns the CDC has is that
    20. 第三篇 What’s killing the Bats
    First it was bees. Now it is bats. Biologists in America are working hard to discover the cause of the mysterious deaths of tens of thousands of bats in the northeastern part of the country. Most of the bats affected are the common little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus,) but other species, such as the long-eared bat, the small-footed hat, the eastern pipistrelle, and the Indiana bat have also been affected. In some caves, more than 90 percent of the bat populations have died.
    One possibility is disease. A white fungus (真菌) known as fusarium has been found on the noses of both living and dead bats. However, scientists don't know. If the fungus is the primary cause of death, a secondary cause of death, or not a cause at all, but the result of some other conditions.
    Another possible cause is a lack of food. For example, bats typically eat a large number of moths (蛾), and in some states such as New York, the number of moths has been declining in recent years. If bats can’t eat enough food, they starve to death.
    Still other scientists believe that global warming is to blame. Warmer temperatures in recent years have been waking up hibernating (冬眠) bats earlier than usual. If bats break their hibernation at the wrong time, they might not find their expected food sources. The weather might also turn cold again and weaken or kill the bats.
    Scientists might not agree on the causes of the bat die-off, but they do agree on the consequences. Bats are an important predator of mosquitoes; a single brown bat can eat 1,000 or more insects in an hour. They also eat beetles and other insects that damage plant crops. If there aren't enough bats, damage will be great from the insects they eat While bats live a long time for their size — the little brown bat can live for more than 30 years — a female bat has only one baby per year, so bat populations grow slowly. Many bat species in the United States are already protected or endangered.
    How can you help? Do not disturb sleeping or nesting bats. If you discover bate that seem to be sick or that are dead, contact your local Fish& Wildlife Department with the details. However, be careful not to touch the animals.
    1. What is the main idea of this passage?
    2. What does the first sentence in Paragraph 1 mean?
    3. The word “pipistrelle" in Paragraph 1 refers to
    4. The "moths" in Paragraph 3 are taken as an example of
    5. What is the purpose of the last paragraph?

    五、第5部分:补全短文

    21. Gorillas have a word for it
    Kokois the first gorilla to have been taught sign language (a way of communicating by using hands and fingers rather than speech). With a vocabulary of more than1000 words, she is the first to prove we share a world with other intelligent beings who feel emotions, look forward to celebrations and also have a sense of humour.
    The 30-year study of Koko has redefined science's concept of gorilla intelligence. 46 ________ But what had not been recognized by the scientific community was that gorillas have the ability to learn a language and have complex emotions.
    Koko lives in the Santa Cruz mountains in North America, in a wooded spot overlooking a valley. 47 ________ She has a barrel on which she likes to sit when 'talking' to humans - gorillas feel more secure when they can look down on others - while her toys are spread everywhere. In addition she has an outside enclosure where she spends her days when it is not raining.
    It is her conversations with her teacher, Dr Penny Patterson, that are inspiring. Penny explains: ‘The reality of my discovery is that our abilities as humans, our skills, sensibilities and emotions are very similar to the great apes. 48 _________
    When she began teaching Koko sign language, placing the little fingers of the one-year-old gorilla into the correct positions for 'drink', 'eat', 'more', and rewarding her with food, Dr Patterson had no idea how quickly Koko would learn. “At first, it seemed Koko was using sign language as a tool to get something,” says Patterson. 'It became the kind of reward system that you could expect of a cat or a dog. But early in her training, she began to combine signs that made me think she was capable of more.’ 49 __________ For example, she didn't know the word for 'ring', so she combined the signs for ‘finger’ and 'bracelet' to express it.
    Dr Patterson continues: ‘Koko loves babies and young people. And when she is asked what gorillas like best, she always says "Gorilla love eat, good’’.' One of Patterson's favourite stories demonstrates Koko's sense of humour. 50 _________
    When Patterson asked her what she would like for her 11th birthday, Koko signed that she wanted a cat. The story of Koko’s cat enabled Patterson to learn more about her student: the cat was hit by a car and Patterson had to break the news to Koko, who signed 'cry, sad, frown'. Then, once alone, Patterson heard Koko make the gorilla's distress call: a loud series of hoots.
    From the age of three, Koko shared her accommodation with Michael who was intended as a mate. However, Michael died suddenly two years ago of a heart attack. ‘Koko went into a depression following Michael's death,’ says Patterson. ‘She would sit for hours with her head hung low looking upset.'
    Dr Patterson asked her if she was looking forward to moving to Hawaii, where Patterson is raising money to build a gorilla refuge. Koko signed ‘Yes', provided she could have curtains in her new home!
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    六、第6部分:完形填空

    22. Robotic Highway Cones
    A University of Nebraska professor has developed robotic cones and barrels. These robotic cones and barrels can move out of the way, or into ______ (51), from computer commands made miles away. They can even be programmed to move on their own at any particular part of the day, said Shane Fanitor, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Nebraska.
    For example, if workers arrived at 6 am, the cones could move from the side of the highway to ______ (52) off the lane at that time. And they can return to the ______ (53) place at the end of the day. “It just seems like a very good application for robots,” Farritor said. “The robotic cones would also help ______ (54) people from hazardous jobs on the highway putting barrels and cones into place,” Fanitor said in a report on his creation.
    Work on the idea began in 2002 using a National Academy of Sciences grant. The ______ (55) allowed Farritor to work on the project with graduate students at Nebraska and his assistant Steve Goddard.
    The robots are placed at the bottom of the cones and barrels and are ______ (56) enough not to greatly change the appearance of the construction aides. “It would look exactly the same,” Farritor said. “______ (57) there’s a kind of rubbery, black base to them. Were place that ______ (58) a robot.
    Farritor has talked with officials from the Nebraska Department of Roads about how the robots would be most ______ (59) to what they might need.
    The robots could come in handy following a slow-moving maintenance operation, like painting a stripe on a road or moving asphalt, ______ (60) now the barrels have to be picked up and moved as the operation ______ (61). “That way you don’t have to block off a 10-mile strip for the operation,” Fanitor said.
    ______ (62) prototypes have been made, they are not in use anywhere. Farritor said he has ______ (63) for a patent and is considering what to do next. He is thinking about starting a small business. He is also thinking about ______ (64) the robots to roads departments and others across the country who may ______ (65) from them.
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