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    一、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    二、第1部分:词汇选项

    三、第2部分:阅读判断

    四、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    五、第4部分:阅读理解

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    七、

    一、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    1.

    二、第1部分:词汇选项

    2. Take some 【spare】 clothes in case you get wet.
    3. They are trying to 【identify】 what is wrong with the present system.
    4. The book raised a storm of 【controversy】.
    5. His heart gave a sudden 【leap】 when he saw her.
    6. Lack of space 【forbids】 further treatment of the topic here.
    7. The new service helped 【boost】 pre-tax profits by 10%.
    8. My 【principal】 concern is to get the job done fast.
    9. The worst 【agonies】 of the war were now beginning.
    10. The AIDS 【convention】 will be held in Glasgow.
    11. Several windows had been 【smashed】.
    12. ‍‍‍‍‍‍I’m sure I’ll be able to 【amuse】 myself for a few hours.‍‍‍‍‍‍
    13. Afterwards there was just a feeling of 【let-down】.
    14. He made a number of rude 【remarks】 about the food.
    15. Some comments are just 【inviting】 trouble.
    16. His knowledge of French is 【fair】.

    三、第2部分:阅读判断

    17.                                        Some Schooling on Backpacks
        According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 5.900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms, clinics, and doctors’ offices last year for sprains and strains caused by backpacks. Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.
        How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide, padded straps (有垫的肩带) and a belt. That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips. You should also tighten both straps firmly, so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist. Also, remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.
        How much should you stuff into your pack? That depends on your size and strength. but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight, so if a child weighs 100 pounds, the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds. One hint. Make frequent trips to your locker to exchange books between classes.
        Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground, but they have problems too. Many are larger than the average shoulder bag, so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.
        Roller bags often don't fit into a locker. They can also lead to tapping and falls in crowded halls. Whatever you use, 10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea.
    1. About six thousand American kids were injured by carrying backpacks last year.
    2. 70 percent of UK physicians have treated children with sprains and strains.
    3. Backpacks with wide, padded straps and a belt can help to avoid problems of sprains and strains.
    4. A 100 pound child should carry a backpack of more than 20 pounds.
    5. Children should put all the books in their lockers.
    6. Roller bags tend to be heavier than ordinary backpacks.
    7. A 10-15 minutes exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.

    四、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    18.                                            Eye Problems
    1  Our eyes are under a great deal of strain these days as computer work, television viewing, night driving, and even sunshine are making exceptional demands. Sunlight, especially in the summer, is now regarded as one cause of cataracts (白内障).
    2  The thinning of the ozone (臭氧) layer means more short-wave ultraviolet (UV) rays (紫外线) are reaching the earth, and these are the biggest risk factor for clouding the lens of the eye. Ultraviolet rays increase the risk of changes to the cornea (角膜) causing clouded vision and eventually cataracts. The rays can be shielded only by anti-UV lenses. However, our eyes are not sufficiently protected by fashion sunglasses.
    3  "Poor night vision and eye fatigue are noticeably more common, and there has been a big increase in minor eye complaints in the over-40s," says Dr. Mireille Bonnet, who took part in recent research. She says that the six muscles controlling each eye move more than 100,000 times a day and that everyone should learn to exercise their eye muscles and allow them to rest.
    4  It was traditionally thought that near- or far-sightedness were inherited conditions and could not be influenced by environmental factors, but new research is challenging this assumption.
    5  Recent studies suggest that up to 80 percent of schoolchildren in the United States and western Europe are nearsighted. Years of focusing on close, two-dimensional work causes most children to become at least slightly nearsighted by the age of 10, say the researchers.
    6  Problems with night vision, which affect around 25 percent of people, are also on the increase because of computer use. Using computer screens means the eye must operate in electromagnetic fields (电磁场) that make it work harder It is estimated that 25 to 30 percent of people have eye conditions, such as difficulty with night vision, which result from staring at a screen.
    1. Paragraph 2 ________
    2. Paragraph 3 ________
    3. Paragraph 5 ________
    4. Paragraph 6 ________
    5. Sunlight in the summer is believed to be one cause of ______.
    6. We can wear anti-UV glasses to protect _______.
    7. We used to believe that near- or far-sightedness were inherited from ______.
    8. Over 25% of people are estimated to have difficulty with night vision due to ______.

    五、第4部分:阅读理解

    19.                                           The Bilingual Brain
        When Karl Kim immigrated to the United States from Korea’s a teenager, he had a hard time learning English. Now he speaks it fluently, and he had a unique opportunity to see how our brains adapt to a second language. As a graduate student, Kim worked in the lab of Joy Hirsch, a neuroscientist in New York. Their work led to an important discovery. They found evidence that children and adults don’t use the same parts of the brain when they learn a second language.

        The researchers used an instrument called an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner to study the brains of two groups of bilingual people. One group consisted of those who had learned a second language as children. The other consisted of people who, like Kim,learned their second language later in life. People from both groups were placed inside the MRI scanner. This allowed Kim and Hirsch to see which parts of the brain were getting more blood and were more active. They asked people from both groups to think about what they had done the day before, first in one language and then the other. They couldn’t speak out loud because any movement would disrupt the scanning.
        Kim and Hirsch looked specifically at two language centers in the brain - Broca's area, which is believed to control speech production, and Wernicke’s area, which is thought to process meaning. Kim and Hirsch found that both groups of people used the same part of Wernicke's area no matter what language they were speaking. But their use of Broca’s area was different.
        People who learned a second language as children used the same region in Broca’s area for both their first and second languages. People who learned a second language later in life used a different part of Broca’s area for their second language. How does Hirsch explain this difference? Hirsch believes that when language is first being programmed in young children, their brains may mix the sounds and structures of all languages in the same area. Once that programming is complete, the processing of a new language must be taken over by a different part of the brain.
        A second possibility is simply that we may acquire languages differently as children than we do as adults. Hirsch thinks that mothers teach a baby to speak by using different methods involving touch, sound, and sight. And that is very different from learning a language in a high school or college class.
    1. Karl Kim’s study showed that______
    2. How did Kim and Hirsch study the brains of two groups of bilingual people?
    3. Which aspect of the two languages centers in the brain does Paragraph 3 discuss?
    4. Kim and Hirsch find that children
    5. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that
    20.                           Some Sleep Drugs Do More Than Make You Sleep
        The United States Food and Drug Administration has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.
        Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.
        Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island3,crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that could cause sleepiness.
        The Food and Drug Administration did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it had documented. However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.
        A FDA official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare. But, he also says there are probably more cases than are reported.5 He says the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs. The Food and Drug Administration has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem.
    1. The FDA announced that
    2. The FDA warned that some sleeping pills
    3. What happened to Patrick Kennedy last year?
    4. After taking the drug Ambien, some people
    5. The risk of strange behaviors resulting from taking sleeping pills could be reduced if

    六、第6部分:完形填空

    21.                                                   Bedwetting
      Millions of kids and teenagers from every part of the world wet the bed every single night. It's so common that there are probably other kids in your class who do it. Most kids don't 【51】 their friends, so it's easy to feel kind of1 alone, like you might be the only one on the whole planet who wets the bed. But you are not 【52】.
      The fancy 【53】 for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis. Enuresis runs in families. This means that if you urinate, or pee, while you are 【54】, there's a good 【55】 that a close relative also did it when he or she was a kid. Just like you may have 【56】 your mom's blue eyes or your uncle's long legs, you probably inherited bedwetting, too.
      The most important thing to remember is that no one 【57】 the bed on purpose4. It doesn't mean that you're 【58】 or a slob. It's something you can't help 【59】.
      For some reason, kids who wet the bed are not able to feel that their bladder is full and don't 【60】 up to pee in the toilet. Sometimes a kid who wets the bed will have a realistic 【61】 that he's in the bathroom peeing — only to wake up later and discover he's all wet. Many kids who wet the bed are very 【62】 sleepers. Trying to wake up someone who wets the bed is often like trying to wake a log—they just stay asleep.
    Some kids who wet the bed do it every single night. Others wet some nights and are 【63】 on others. A lot of kids say that they seem to be drier when they sleep at a friend's or a relative's house. That’s because kids who are anxious 【64】 wetting the bed may not sleep much or only very lightly.So the brain may be thinking, "Hey, you! Don't wet someone else's bed!" This can help you 【65】 dry even if you're not aware of it.
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    七、

    22. ‍‍‍‍                                   Approaches to Understanding Intelligences
        It bays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader. Each of us is different.
        Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.
        Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words, numbers or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests, and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test, do the same on all tests.
        Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brain of intelligence people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.
        Howard Gardner, a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education, has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn’t be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists, he doesn’t think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He think that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.
        Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example ,when one part of the Brain is injured ,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of Brain damage can still sing.So ,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has Identified 8 different kinds of intelligence, linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, Interpersonal, intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic.
    ‍‍‍
    1. What is the main idea of this passage?
    2. Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?
    3. Gardner believes that ______.
    4. According to Gardner, schools should ______.
    5. Gardner thinks that his theory has a ______.
    23.                                      Do You Have a Sense of Humor?
        Humor and laughter are good for us. There is increasing evidence that they can heal us physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually. In fact, every system of the body responds to laughter in some positive, healing way. So how can we get more laughter into our lives? 【46】 Psychologist and author, Steve Wilson, has some answers.
        Many people believe that we are born with a sense of humor. They think, “either you’ve got it, or you don’t.” Dr. Wilson points out that this is false.【47】
        The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at birth. 【48】 (After all, when a baby laughs, we don’t rush over and say,“That kid has a great sense of humor!”) A sense of humor is something that you can develop over a lifetime.
        Sometimes people think that they don’t have a good sense of humor because they are not good joke tellers. Dr. Wilson reminds us that telling jokes is only one of many ways to express humor. 【49】 Then we will make others laugh, too.
        A person who has a true sense of humor is willing and able to see the funny side of everyday life. One of the best definitions of a sense of humor is “the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation.” Consider this sign from a store window.“Any faulty merchandise will be cheerfully replaced with merchandise of equal quality.” The store manager probably placed the sign in the window to impress customers with the store’s excellent service 【50】 As Dr. Wilson says,“a good sense of humor means that you don’t have to be funny, you just have to see what’s funny.”
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