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    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    四、阅读理解

    五、第4部分:阅读理解

    六、第4部分:阅读理解

    七、第5部分:补全短文

    八、第6部分:完形填空

    一、第1部分:词汇选项

    1. Afterwards there was just a feeling of 【let down】.
    2. The committee was asked to 【render】 a report on the housing situation.
    3. The curriculum was too narrow and too 【rigid】.
    4. He led a very 【moral】 life.
    5. The majority of people around here are 【decent】.
    6. His knowledge of French is 【fair】.
    7. The group does not 【advocate】 the use of violence.
    8. The worst 【agonies】 of the war were now beginning.
    9. It was a magic night until the 【spell】 was broken.
    10. They are trying to 【identify】 what is wrong with the present system.
    11. Several windows had been 【smashed】.
    12. She felt that she had done her good 【deed】 for the day.
    13. London quickly became a 【flourishing】 port.
    14. His professional career 【spanned】 16 years.
    15. His stomach felt 【hollow】 with fear.

    二、第2部分:阅读判断

    16.                                        Some Schooling on Backpacks
        According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 5.900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms, clinics, and doctors’ offices last year for sprains and strains caused by backpacks. Such injuries are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians surveyed by the American Academy of Orthopedic(整形外科的)Surgeons listed backpacks as a potential clinical problem for children.
        How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide, padded straps (有垫的肩带) and a belt. That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips. You should also tighten both straps firmly, so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist. Also, remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.
        How much should you stuff into your pack? That depends on your size and strength. but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight, so if a child weighs 100 pounds, the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds. One hint. Make frequent trips to your locker to exchange books between classes.
        Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground, but they have problems too. Many are larger than the average shoulder bag, so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.
        Roller bags often don't fit into a locker. They can also lead to tapping and falls in crowded halls. Whatever you use, 10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea.
    1. About six thousand American kids were injured by carrying backpacks last year.
    2. 70 percent of UK physicians have treated children with sprains and strains.
    3. Backpacks with wide, padded straps and a belt can help to avoid problems of sprains and strains.
    4. A 100 pound child should carry a backpack of more than 20 pounds.
    5. Children should put all the books in their lockers.
    6. Roller bags tend to be heavier than ordinary backpacks.
    7. A 10-15 minutes exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.

    三、第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

    17.                                        Aromatherapy (芳香疗法)
       Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine which is based on the use of very concentrated essential oils from the flowers, leaves, bark, branches or roots of plants which are considered to have healing properties. In aromatherapy these powerful oils are mixed with other oils, such as almond (杏仁) oil, or they are diluted (稀释) with water. These solutions (溶液剂) can be rubbed on the skin, sprayed in the air, or applied as a compress (敷药).
       Many people have aromatherapy massages (按摩),and depending on the treatment a person is having, the aromatherapist will massage the oil into the hands or shoulders. The massage is smooth and flowing, as it is designed to create a sense of relaxation and calm. The sessions are tailored to the individual's health and mood at the time, so every session is unique.
       Practioners of aromatherapy believe that the aroma of the essential oils directly stimulates the brain or that the oils are absorbed through the skin into the blood stream, where they can affect the whole body and promote healing. Other claims in support of aromatherapy are that it aids digestion, improves the function of respiratory system, reduces muscular aches and pains, and promotes muscle relaxation and tone. It has also been argued that aromatherapy can improve circulation, lower blood pressure, and help combat insomnia (失眠)and other stress-related disorders such as tension headaches, anxiety, and mild depression.
      However, while aromatherapy may have real effects that promote a sense of well-being, some traditional medicine practitioners remain doubtful about its powers. While research has confirmed that aromatherapy does have some positive short-term effects on most people, it also suggests that aromatherapy is not an actual science or medicine that should be used to treat illness. Furthermore, not all aromatherapy is considered beneficial to health. There are precautions which should be taken before having aromatherapy because some oils can have negative effects on people with certain medical conditions. The study of aromatherapy is relatively new and unexplored. More research needs to be conducted to make scientific conclusions about its use and effects.
    1. Paragraph 1 ___________
    2. Paragraph 2 ___________
    3. ‍‍Paragraph 3 ___________‍‍
    4. Paragraph 4 ___________
    5. Aromatherapy is a mixture oil from parts of the plants to ___________.
    6. The sessions of aromatherapy massages are designed to __________.
    7. Aromatherapy is believed to _________ in various ways.
    8. The used and benefits of aromatherapy need to _________.

    四、阅读理解

    18. ‍‍‍‍                                   Approaches to Understanding Intelligences
        It bays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader. Each of us is different.
        Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others believe there are many different intelligences.
        Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using words, numbers or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests, and written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test, do the same on all tests.
        Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence.The brain of intelligence people use less energy during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain.
        Howard Gardner, a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education, has four children.He believes that all children are different and shouldn’t be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists, he doesn’t think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling.He think that the human mind has different intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences.
        Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For example ,when one part of the Brain is injured ,other parts of the brain still work.People who cannot talk because of Brain damage can still sing.So ,there is not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has Identified 8 different kinds of intelligence, linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, Interpersonal, intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and naturalistic.
    ‍‍‍
    1. What is the main idea of this passage?
    2. Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence?
    3. Gardner believes that ______.
    4. According to Gardner, schools should ______.
    5. Gardner thinks that his theory has a ______.

    五、第4部分:阅读理解

    19.                                     The Worker’s Role in Management
        Traditionally, it has been the worker's role to worker and management's role to manage. Managers have planned and directed the firm's operation with little thought consulting the labor force. Managers have rarely felt compelled to obtain the worker's opinions or to explain their decisions to their employees. At most, companies have provided "suggestion boxes" in which workers could place ideas for improving procedures. In recent years, however, many management specialists have been arguing that workers are more than sellers of labor-they have a vital stake in the company and many be able to make significant contributions to its management. Furthermore, major company decisions profoundly affect workers and their dependents. This is particularly true of plant closings, which may put thousands on the unemployment lines. Should workers, then, play a stronger role in management?
        Workers should have a role in management. At the very least, the labor force should be informed of major policy decisions. (A common complaint among rank-and-file workers is the lack of information about company policies and actions.) Between 1980 and 1985 about five million workers were the victims of plant closings and permanent layoffs, often with no warning. At least 90 days’ notice ought to be given in such instances so that workers have time to adjust. Management should consult workers before closing a plant, because the workers might be able to suggest ways of improving productivity and reducing costs and might be willing to make concessions that will keep the plant operating.
        It should become a general practice to include workers in some managerial decision making. There ought to be representatives of the workers on the firm's board of directors or other major policymaking groups. If rank-and-file workers are given a voice in the planning and management of the work flow, they will help to make improvement, their morale will rise, and their productivity will increase. As a further incentive, they must be given a share in the company's profits. This can be done through employee stockownership plans, bonuses, or rewards for efficiency and productivity. Finally, when a plant can no longer operate at a profit, the workers should be given the opportunity to purchase the plant and run it themselves.
    1. It can be inferred from the passage 1 that managers
    2. In recent years, many management specialists have been arguing that workers
    3. The word “rank and file” paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
    4. According to the passage, what happened between 1980 and 1985?
    5. If not given a voice in managerial decision making workers

    六、第4部分:阅读理解

    20.                                  Obesity(肥胖) in the Western World 
      Obesity is rapidly becoming a new scourge of the western world, delegates agreed at the 11th European Conference on the issue in Vienna1 Wednesday to Saturday. According to statements before the opening of the conference of 2,000 specialists from more than 50 countries 一1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight, and 250 million are obese. 

      Professor Bernhard Ludvik of Vienna General Hospital said,“ Obesity is a chronic illness. In Germany,20 per cent of the people are already affected,but in Japan only one per cent. ” But he said that there was hope for sufferers thanks to the new scientific discoveries and medication. 
      Professor Friedrich Hopichler of Salzberg said, "We are living in the new age (but) with the metabolism of a stone-age man." “I have just been to the United States. It is really terrible. A pizza shop is springing up3 on every corner. We have been overrun by fast food and Coca-Cola-ization. ” 
      Many of the experts stressed that obesity was a potential killer. Hopichler said, “Eighty percent of all diabetics are obese,also fifty per cent of all patients with high blood pressure and fifty per cent with adipose tissue complaints. ”  “Ten per cent more weight means thirteen per cent more risk of heart disease. Reducing one's weight by ten percent leads to thirteen percent lower blood pressure. ” 
      Another expert Hermann Toplak said that the state health services should improve their financing of preventive programs. “Though the health insurance pays for surgery (such as reducing the size of the stomach) when the body-mass index is more than 40. That is equivalent to a weight of 116 kilograms for a height of 1.70 meters. One should start earlier. ” 
      Ludvik said that prevention should begin in school. “ Child obesity (fat deposits) correlates with the time which children spend in front of TV sets. ” 
        The consequences were only apparent later on. No more than fifteen per cent of obese people lived to the average life expectancy8 for their population group.
    1. Which of the following is true about obesity in Paragraph 2?
    2. Which of the following does Prof. Friedrich Hopichler probably agree?
    3. Hermann Toplak suggested that more money should be spent on
    4. Which of the following is most often accompanied by obesity?
    5. “The consequences” in the last paragraph result from people

    七、第5部分:补全短文

    21.                                         The Day a Language Died
        When Carlos Westez died at the age of 76, a language died, too. Carlos Westez, more commonly known as Red Thunder Cloud, was the last speaker of the Native American language Catawba. Anyone who wants to hear various songs of the Catawba can contact the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., where, back in the 1940s. Red Thunder Cloud recorded a series of songs for future generations. 【46】 They are all that is left of the Catawba language. The language that people used to speak is gone forever.
        We are all aware of the danger that modern industry can do to the world’s ecology(生态). However, few people are aware of the impact that widely spoken languages have on other languages and ways of life. English has spread all over the world. Chinese, Spanish, Russian, and Hindi have become powerful languages as well. 【47】When this happens, hundreds of languages that are spoken by only a few people die out.
        Scholars believe there are around 6,000 languages around the world, but more than half of them could die out within the next 100 years. There are many examples. Araki is a native language of the island of Vanuatu, located in the Pacific Ocean. It is spoken by only a few adults, so like Catawba, Araki will soon disappear. Many languages of Ethiopian will have the same fate because each one has only a few speakers.【48】In the Americas, 100 languages, each of which has fewer than 300 speakers, also are dying out. 
        Red Thunder Cloud was one of the first to recognize the threat of language death and to try to do something about it. He was not actually born into the Catawba tribe, and the language was not his mother tongue. 【49】The songs he sang for the Smithsonian Institution helped to make Native American music popular. Now he is gone, and the language is dead.
        What does it mean for the rest of us when a language disappears? When a plant, insect, or animal species dies, it is easy to understand what we’ve lost and to appreciate what this means for the balance of the natural world. However, language is only a product of the mind. To be the last remaining speaker of a language, like Red Thunder Cloud, must be a lonely destiny, almost as strange and terrible as being the last surviving member of a dying species. 【50】
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    八、第6部分:完形填空

    22.                                      Teaching and Learing Medicine Award
        Two scientists who have won praise for research into the growth of cancer cells could be candidates for the Nobel Prize in medicine when the 2008 winners are presented on Monday, kicking off six days of Nobel announcements.
        Australian-born U. S. citizen Elizabeth Blackburn and American Carol Greider have already won a series of medical 【51】 for their enzyme research and experts say they could be among the front-runners for a Nobel.
        Only seven women have 【52】 the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were 【53】out in 1901.The last female winner was U. S. researcher Linda Buck in 2004, who 【54】 the prize with Richard Axel.
       Among the pair’s possible 【55】 are Frenchman Pierre Chambon and Americans Ronald Evans and Elwood Jensen, who 【56】 up the field of studying proteins called nuclear hormone receptors3.
        As usual, the award committee is giving no 【57】 about who is in the running before presenting its decision in a news conference4 at Stockholm’s Karolinska Institute.
        Alfred Nobel, the Swede who 【58】 dynamite, established the prizes in his will in the 【59】 of medicine, physics, chemistry, literature and peace. The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden’s central bank.
    Nobel left few instructions on how to 【60】 winners, but medicine winners are typically 【61】 for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of5 research.
        Hans Jomvall, secretary of the medicine prize committee, said the 10 million kronor (US $1.3 million) prize encourages 【62】 research but he did not think winning it was the primary goal for scientists.
        “Individual researchers probably don’t 【63】 at themselves as potential Nobel Prize winners when they’re 【64】 work”,Jornvall told The Associated Press. “They get their kicks from their research and their interest in how life 【65】.”
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