to Understanding Intelligences
It bays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the
same way.You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader.
Each of us is different.
Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence
and what are talents or personal abilities.Psychologists have two different
views on intelligence.Some believe there is one general intelligence.Others
believe there are many different intelligences.
Some psychologists say there is one type of
intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests.These psychologists support
their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of
test for mental ability do well on other tests.They do well on tests using
words, numbers or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests, and
written or oral tests.Those who do poorly on one test, do the same on all
Studies of the brain show that there is a biological
basis for general intelligence.The brain of intelligence people use less energy
during problem solving.The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show
a quicker reaction.Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence
result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information
processing by the brain.
Howard Gardner, a psychologist at the Harvard School
of Education, has four children.He believes that all children are different and
shouldn’t be tested by one intelligence test.Although Gardner believes general
intelligence exists, he doesn’t think it tells much about the talents of a
person outside of formal schooling.He think that the human mind has different
intelligences.These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we
are presented with in life.Each of us has different abilities within these
intelligences.Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to
encourage development of all of our intelligences.
Gardner says that his theory is based on biology.For
example ,when one part of the Brain is injured ,other parts of the brain still
work.People who cannot talk because of Brain damage can still sing.So ,there is
not just one intelligence to lose.Gardner has Identified 8 different kinds of
intelligence, linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, Interpersonal,
intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的), and